The following table summarizes the case and style rules for some of the major style guides. My style manual is the American Medical Association`s Style Manual, which avoids the use of punctuation in abbreviations (up to and including MD, for example, and IE). This is one of the hardest things people have to get used to when they start writing in my business. The other difficult thing people need to remember is not spelling numbers unless they start a sentence – even numbers below 10! A brief overview of the AMA style can be found here: www.docstyles.com/archive/amastat.pdf Whether an abbreviation is capitalized depends more on the convention than on a fixed set of rules. For example, in the world of information technology, many abbreviations are uppercase (IT, URL, PC), while science often uses a mixture of uppercase and lowercase letters (mRNA, GlcNAc). Follow your domain`s conventions and stay consistent when used in a document. I can understand how new employees struggle with punctuation and number rules. I`m glad you have a style sheet to support new authors – and rules. Another variation is the addition of dots between each letter in these terms.
For example, when I`m frustrated by a lack of punctuation, I try to remember that I can only control my own behavior, not that of other behaviors. Q. Is there any chance that “am” and “pm” will become acceptable as correct forms of “a.m.” and “p.m.”? References to midnight can cause confusion. Is midnight Friday at the beginning or end of Friday? For this reason, insurance policies usually come into effect at 12:01 p.m. and airline flight schedules show flights at 11:59 p.m. or 12:01 p.m. rather than midnight. Instead, it should be written in one of the following ways. Note: Despite the official guidelines of the style guides, you can still use AM and PM if you wish. For example, you can write “13:00” if you want.
Be aware that it is not recommended by official style guides. Pam wrote to me to settle a debate between the younger and older employees in her office. His quick question was: I felt the same way about the word “grey.” I wanted to spell it “grey”, in the British way, because it seemed right to me. But since I lived and worked in the United States, I decided to give up my preference and use “gray.” However, there are several ways to write these terms, as we will explore below. However, if you use the unctuated forms of these terms, you can close the gap. This is not true if you use punctuation forms, so be careful not to confuse these styles: as with these other acronyms, this also means that you should omit all punctuations or periods. Here are some examples of sentences with A.M. and P.M. Could you please clarify the punctuation rule when time is written at the end of a sentence? I guess in this sentence I wouldn`t insert a period after the hour because it would sound silly (2pm). I guess you hate periods in phone numbers.
I prefer hyphens myself, but this is another blog post, especially “How to format phone numbers.” You can find it here: www.businesswritingblog.com/business_writing/2007/01/how_to_format_p.html The first explosion was reported at 10:50 a.m. in the Starbucks parking lot of the Skyline building next to Sarinah, and six more explosions followed within 10 minutes, including at the police station at the intersection of Jalan Thamrin and Jalan K.H. Wahid Hasyim, according to witness statements. (The Jakarta Globe) Usage: The meeting is held from 8 a.m. to 11 a.m. No: The meeting will be held from 8 a.m. to 11 a.m. Usage: Sessions begin at 8:30 a.m., 9:30 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. No: Meetings begin at 8:30 a.m., 9:30 a.m.
and 10:30 a.m. As you can see, there are many options available when writing these terms. And as a reviewer, your top priority will be to make sure your client is using a consistent style. However, if your client also uses a style guide, you can ask them for advice. What about a period of time? If a function runs from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. or is it from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m.? Sue, a mention of “p.m.” is sufficient if your meaning is obvious. It is now rare for dots to be placed after these abbreviations as in “AM”; But in formal writing, it`s still best to capitalize them, even though the lowercase letters “AM” and “PM” are now so popular that they probably won`t get you into trouble. Or you can write them with small capital letters. All of them are acceptable ways to write these terms, so it ultimately comes down to the preference or style guide your client chooses. What is the right way to write at 12:00 or 12:00 Use the morning and afternoon to express and emphasize the exact time.
The abbreviation a.m., which comes from the Latin ante meridiem (before noon), refers to the first 12-hour period of the day. The second half of the day takes the abbreviation p.m., from post meridiem (afternoon). I also write AM and PM without the dots or spaces. I always thought that writing A.M. or A.M. or P.M. or P.M. was not the right way to write that. I think I`m an old stick in the mud, and since I hate changes or new ways of doing things, I`m going to stick to AM and PM writing. It may be wrong or grammatically wrong, but that`s what I`m used to. Does your style guide recommend a different approach to time? If so, please share it here. In British parlance, dots are sometimes omitted in lowercase: Colin drinks tea every day at 4pm.
If the exact time is not important, and in informal contexts, such as in everyday language, the abbreviations a.m. and p.m. are often omitted. Especially when it`s clear how half of the day is referenced, the use of these abbreviations may seem unnecessarily formal. Speakers then use expressions like clock, half-past and quarter past, or simply numbers for time. The Chicago Manual of Style 4pm (recommended)Also 4pm or 4pm (with PM in lower case) What if the 4pm is at the end of the sentence? Do you need to set another period? One would think that finding this information would be relatively easy, straightforward and easy given the amount of technology we have. However, I spent almost 15 minutes looking for what is really too much time, and I`m still frustrated. I have the St. Martin`s Guide to Library and Research Documenting, which lists AMA, APA, CBE and note and bibliography styles for almost everything, but also abbreviations for time, acronyms, geographical names and a few other things common to all styles. The correct format for the time is lowercase letters with dots. He also explains that a.m.
ante meridiem, “before noon” and p.m. is post meridiem, “after noon”. That is why periods are necessary, although I do not know how consistent they are in all Latin translations. For example, “for example” (. Titles and titles are different. The abbreviations A.M. and P.M. should be capitalized in the titles.
However, abbreviations should always have periods between letters and temporal numbers should be separated from the abbreviation by a period. In titles, words longer than four letters are capitalized in addition to important words. Although A.M. and P.M. are two letters, they must be capitalized in a title. But that`s not the only legitimate option! You can also write them in lowercase: Microsoft Manual of Style: 4:00 p.m. (however, Microsoft prefers 24-hour time ratings where 4:00 p.m. is 4:00 p.m.) A variety of different styles may be acceptable for formal invitations.
The following style should be used in the text for print and electronic communications. Use numbers for hours except noon and midnight, use a colon to separate hours and minutes, and don`t use ciphers (double zeros) with whole hours. Marfaret, according to the reference manuals cited above, is only correct at 16:00. The new IndyStar Call For Action consumer helpline is now closed, but will reopen Friday from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. (The Indianapolis Star) A. There are six ways to write the abbreviations for ante meridiem (before noon) and post meridiem (afternoon): Hello, Mircalla. Your sentence looks good. You would also be right if you wrote “11 o`clock.” (without the zeros), especially if you don`t have other times to list. If you use a 12-hour clock, these terms clarify the time we have in mind (for example, 12 o`clock is midnight, while 12 o`clock is noon).
This is not necessary when using a 24-hour clock. Is it correct to write: This afternoon at 4 p.m. we are meeting. Is it inappropriate to add the word “afternoon” if you indicated that it is 4 p.m.? This cannot happen if you use “19 hours.”, for example. When you said, “Explain the 24-hour time,” did you have a specific question? The XYZ panel will take place on Tuesday, September 13 at 11:00 am. When writing the time of day, don`t mix styles in one context. Stay consistent in usage in terms of a.m./p.m., numbers, hours, and minutes. Put a period after the letters of the lowercase letters a.m.